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白宫人事改组意在遏制中国

原标题:文章原标题:白宫人事改组将强化美亚关系遏制中国

作者:马克·兰德勒

来源:环球时报

来源日期:2011年04月13日

本站发布:2011年04月14日

点击率:1105次


  美国《纽约时报》4月8日文章,原题:人事改组可能将影响美国对华政策基调奥巴马政府即将失去3位最为重要的对华政策团队成员,这一人事改组将强化美国拉近与其他亚洲国家关系的努力,以抗衡日益自负的北京。(相关链接:奥巴马内阁三名中国通离任

  美高级官员透露,奥巴马的对华政策首席智囊杰弗里·贝德即将离开白宫。侧重于中国问题的副国务卿詹姆斯·斯坦伯格也宣布计划转投学术界。同时,美驻华大使洪博培将于4月底卸任。他们的集体离去可能改变美政府的对华政策基调。美中关系是最为重要,同时也是最难处理的两国关系。

  贝德在国家安全委员会的职务将由他的副手、日本问题专家丹尼尔·拉塞尔接替,而斯坦伯格的接替人选将是负责东亚事务、同样专注于日本的助理国务卿库特·坎贝尔。尽管拉塞尔和坎贝尔在过去两年中时常访华,但两人的日本“出身”将提醒中国,美国在该地区有其他老朋友。自奥巴马任总统以来,美国一直在加深同日韩的同盟关系,并不断增进与印尼、越南和其他担忧中国地区野心的中国邻国的关系。

  白宫淡化了这一人事改组所传递出的信息,称国家安全顾问托马斯·多尼隆将协调美国对华政策。多尼隆是美政府对华政策的关键人物。他与中国官员保持联系,但从其背景和教育经历来看,他并非一位中国通。洪博培的继任者将是美商务部长骆家辉。据预计,骆家辉将受到中方热烈欢迎,他是美政府中职位最高的华裔。随着贝德即将转投布鲁金斯学会,美国政府将失去一位会讲中文的官员,且他参与中国问题的历史可追溯至1979年两国关系正常化时期。其继任者拉塞尔会讲日语,曾于2005年至2008年担任驻大阪总领事。

  随着美国经济的复苏和人民币适度升值,北京和华盛顿的贸易摩擦近几周来有所缓和。白宫也注意到两国关系改善的迹象。▲(作者马克·兰德勒,伊文译)

英文原文:

April 8, 2011
Shake-Up Could Affect Tone of U.S. Policy on China
By MARK LANDLER
WASHINGTON — With tensions rising over China’s crackdown on dissent, the Obama administration is about to lose three of its most prominent players on China policy — a shake-up that could reinforce its efforts to cultivate other Asian countries to counterbalance an increasingly assertive Beijing.

Jeffrey A. Bader, President Obama’s top China adviser, is leaving the White House, senior officials said on Friday. James B. Steinberg, a deputy secretary of state who focused heavily on China, has announced plans to take a job in academia, while the American ambassador to China, Jon M. Huntsman Jr., will step down at the end of April to explore a bid for the Republican presidential nomination.

Taken together, the departures could alter the tone of the administration’s approach to China, one of its most vital but difficult relationships. Mr. Bader will be replaced at the National Security Council by his deputy, Daniel R. Russel, a Japan expert. Mr. Steinberg’s exit raises the profile of Kurt M. Campbell, the assistant secretary for East Asian affairs, who has also worked intensively on Japan.

While both Mr. Russel and Mr. Campbell have traveled to Beijing regularly in the last two years, their Japan pedigrees serve as a reminder to China that the United States has other old friends in the region. Since Mr. Obama took office, the United States has worked to shore up alliances with Japan and South Korea and to deepen ties with Indonesia, Vietnam and other neighbors that worry about China’s regional ambitions.

White House officials played down any message in the changes, noting that China policy is coordinated by the national security adviser, Thomas E. Donilon, and that Mr. Obama has met the Chinese president, Hu Jintao, eight times — an unusual amount of contact that demonstrates the importance that the administration attaches to China.

“We’re going to have challenges going forward,” Mr. Donilon said of China in an interview on Thursday. “But we work from a better base, and more important, we work from a stronger base in the region.”

Among those challenges is China’s recent detention of dozens of lawyers, journalists, artists and human-rights advocates, which American officials said appeared to be aimed at preventing the Arab world’s uprisings from spreading to China. The State Department cited the arrests in its annual human-rights report, issued Friday, and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton bluntly criticized China.

On Wednesday, Ambassador Huntsman used a farewell speech in China to deliver a rebuke of Chinese authorities for detaining Ai Weiwei, a Beijing artist, as he was trying to board a flight to Hong Kong on Sunday. Mr. Huntsman also said China had wrongly jailed an American geologist, Xue Feng, who was accused of stealing state secrets while researching the Chinese oil industry.

Mr. Huntsman has been in an awkward spot, still serving as Mr. Obama’s emissary even though there were indications that he might challenge him for the presidency in 2012. But administration officials said his remarks faithfully echoed the administration’s criticism.

Mr. Huntsman’s successor will be Gary Locke, the former governor of Washington, who is now commerce secretary. A senior official predicted that Mr. Locke would be warmly received in China because of his status as one of the highest-ranking Chinese-Americans in the government, as well as his record in Washington State, where he worked on trade ties with China for local exporters like Boeing.

Trade friction between Beijing and Washington has eased in recent weeks, with the upswing in the American economy and a modest rise in the value of China’s currency. In February, the Treasury Department declined again, in a twice-yearly report, to cite China for manipulating its currency, though it said the currency, the renminbi, remained “substantially undervalued” compared to the dollar.

The White House pointed to signs of improvement, including China’s decision not to veto a United Nations resolution authorizing military action in Libya, as well as its support for sanctions against Iran. Chinese officials are toning down maritime claims in the South China Sea, an issue that flared last year when Mrs. Clinton said the United States wanted to help resolve disputes between China and its neighbors.

After a fraught period between the two countries over disputes like climate change and North Korea, Mr. Hu had a smooth state visit in January. It had been exhaustively planned by Mr. Donilon and Mr. Bader, who traveled to Beijing last fall with Mr. Obama’s former top economic adviser, Lawrence H. Summers. It was a trip that cemented Mr. Donilon as the key administration figure on China.

Mr. Donilon has kept up his contacts with Chinese officials, but he is not a China hand by background or education.

With Mr. Bader’s departure for the Brookings Institution, the administration is losing a Chinese-speaking official whose involvement with China goes back to the normalization of relations in 1979. He also came up with the idea of appointing Mr. Huntsman, then the governor of Utah, who had been a Mormon missionary in Taiwan.

Mr. Bader’s replacement, Mr. Russel, speaks Japanese and was consul general in Osaka, Japan, from 2005 to 2008. Noting that he worked at the United Nations and in Europe, Mr. Russel said that an official’s focus could not be extrapolated from his background “because their focus is what the president’s focus is.”

For all his history with China, Mr. Bader was the architect of a policy that has stressed tightening ties with all the countries around it. He said Mr. Russel’s regional focus made him the right choice to carry that forward.

Steven Lee Myers contributed reporting.

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